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Wildflowers


Fringed Yellow Loosestrife

Lysimachia ciliata

Lysimaque ciliée

Family: Primrose (Primulaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 30-50 cm (1-2')
Light requirements: Shade to part shade
Moisture requirements: Damp
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Wet areas next to ponds and streams.

Wildlife use: According to Xerces Society, of "special value to native bees." From Illinois Wildflowers: "The floral oil and pollen of the flowers attract the Melittid bee, Macropis steironematis. This bee is a specialist visitor (oligolege) of Lysimachia spp. It collects the floral oil and pollen for its larvae. In addition, the Halictid bee Lasioglossum versatus has been observed collecting pollen from the flowers of Fringed Loosestrife. Insects that feed destructively on various parts of Fringed Loosestrife and other Lysimachia spp. include the leafhopper Rossmoneura carbonata, larvae of the sawfly Monostegia abdominalis, larvae of Dasineura lysimachiae (Loosestrife Bud Gall Midge), larvae of the moth Nola cilicoides (Blurry-Patched Nola), and leaf-mining larvae of the moth Phyllonorycter lysimachiaeella. Many of these insects are oligophagous. Little appears to be known about this wildflower's relationships with birds and mammals."

Notes: "Fringed" name comes from its hairy petioles.

Propagation: By seed. Germination rate low.

Provenance: Collected seeds at Chapman Mills. They germinated the first year, but plants were very small; much sturdier the second year.



Yellow Marsh Marigold

Caltha palustris

Populage des marais

Family: Buttercup (Ranunculaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 30-60 cm (1-2')
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Wet
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Ditches, ponds, streambanks, swamps. Common in the Ottawa region; found across Canada and in the north.

Wildlife use: Pollinated by syrphid flies

Notes: Needs to be in very wet soil.

Propagation: Can be grown from seed. Collect seeds when pods split and seeds start to fall out; if seeds dry, they become dormant. Most sources advise exposing seeds to a couple of months of warm stratification, then a similar period of cold. This has not worked for us. However, putting newly harvested seeds directly into damp vermiculite in the refrigerator resulted in good germination in spring 2009.

Provenance:



Harebell

Campanula rotundifolia

Campanule à feuilles rondes

Family: Bellflower (Campanulaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: RO
Flower colour: Blue to violet
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 15-45 cm (6-18")
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Alpine areas, meadows, rocky slopes. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Good nectar plant. Young plants are eaten by small mammals.

Notes: Blooms most of the summer. Spreads quickly in gardens where soil is richer than in the wild. However, we have had great difficulty growing this species as the young plants are eaten by small mammals.

Propagation: Grow from seed.

Provenance:



Blue Cohosh

Caulophyllum thalictroides

Caulophylle faux-pigamon

Family: Barberry (Berberidaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Green
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 60 cm (2')
Light requirements: Full to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in woodlands in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Pollinated by flies and bees.

Notes: Dark blue spiky leaf shoots in spring turn to green bushy foliage. Small greenish yellow flowers in May. Dark blue berries in late summer.

Propagation: Seeds difficult to germinate. Propagate by division.

Provenance:



White Turtlehead

Chelone glabra

Galane glabre

Family: Plantain ( Plantaginaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 0.5-1 m (1.5-2')
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Wet
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Wetlands, ditches. Uncommon in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Larval food of the Baltimore Checkspot butterfly, but large number of plants probably needed to attract adults to lay eggs. Excellent nectar plant for bees large enough to force open the flowers. Visited by hummingbirds.

Notes: Grows in shade as well as damp areas. Pink horticultural variety is also present in the Backyard Garden.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seeds, which ripen in late fall. We store seeds in damp vermiculite in a refrigerator for 3 months, after which they germinate quickly.

Provenance:



Yellow Lady's Slipper

Cypripedium calceolus

Sabot jaune

Family: Orchid (Orchidaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Late spring
Height: 30-60 cm (1-2')
Light requirements: Part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Moist woods and bogs. Uncommon in the Ottawa region, but abundant in a few locations where conditions are ideal.

Wildlife use: Pollinated by bees that enter lower petal through 1-way opening, then must exit out top.

Notes: A plant donated in 2001 bloomed every year until 2007 when it disappear. In 2008, new plants were donated. According to Gillett and White C. calceolus includes var. parviflorum and var. pubescens. We're not sure which variety we have. Apparently the larger species C. pubescens is easier to grow. Unlike

Propagation: Orchid seeds are extremely tiny. From elongated capsules hundreds of thousands of seeds are dispersed by the wind like powder. However, to germinate they must find the right combination of habitat and symbiotic fungus. The seeds contain virtually no food stores and must join with a mycorrhizal fungus to absorb nutrients from the soil. Establishing this relationship may require a few years, and then several more years with the correct conditions and climate to produce a flower.

Provenance: Malcolm - from his property in Lanark Co., spring 2008



Pale Corydalis

Corydalis sempervirens

Corydale rose

Family: Fumitory (Fumariaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: RO
Flower colour: Pink and yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Early summer
Height: 15-60 cm (6-24")
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Open woods, clearings. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Fragile biennial. Does not seem to transplant easily, but spreads quickly once established.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed.

Provenance:



Bluebead Lily

Clintonia borealis

Lis sauvage de la vallée

Family: Lily (Liliaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 15-25 cm ( 6-18")
Light requirements: Full to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Acidic or neutral

Natural habitat: Cool moist woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Two to three broad shiny basal leaves, greenish yellow bells on a leafless stalk. Attractive dark blue shiny, bead-like berries in August. Spreads slowly under good conditions.

Propagation: Not tried

Provenance: Sandy's property



Foamflower

Tiarella cordifolia

Tiarelle cordifoliée

Family: Saxifrage (Saxifragaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 15-30 cm (6-12")
Light requirements: Full to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: An excellent choice for a woodland garden. Grows in clumps. Spreads, but not aggressively. Lots of flowers in spring. Light greeen foliage is very attractive all season.

Propagation: Can be propagated from seed, but seeds should not be allowed to dry out. Best to harvest as soon as they are ripe and sow outdoors under "natural" conditions. We have not succeeded in doing this.

Provenance: Philip Fry



Flat-top White Aster

Doellingeria umbellata

Aster à ombelles

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot; Butterfly Meadow
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 1-1.5 m (3-5')
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Thickets, edge of woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Nectar and pollen source for bees and butterflies. Larval host for Northern Crescent butterfly.

Notes: Grows taller in the garden than in the wild, but does not spread quickly.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed collected in the fall.

Provenance:



Bottle Gentian

Gentiana andrewsii

Gentiane d'Andrews

Family: Gentian (Gentianaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: Blue to violet
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer
Height: 15-45 cm ( 6-18")
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Damp meadows. Uncommon in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Pollinated by bees that are strong enough to force the petals open. Some insects bore through the base of the flower to get nectar. In 2012, we saw a hummingbird visiting gentian for nectar.

Notes: Flower colour is a spectacular, vibrant blue. In the wild, plants grow singly. Even where there are many plants, they tend to be spread over a wide area rather than all together.

Propagation: Grow from seed, which can be collected in the fall. Drying brown seed capsules are about the same size as flowers. They are filled with millions of tiny seeds. Seeds require cold moist stratification and light to germinate. See Native Plant Network protocol.

Provenance:



Herb-Robert

Geranium robertianum

Géranium de Robert

Family: Geranium (Geraniaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 15-30 cm (6-12")
Light requirements: Part shade
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Self-seeds prolifically. Plants do not last long, but new plants tend to pop up everywhere. Don't even try to confine this plant to one area of the garden. Does not do well in bright sun.

Propagation: We haven't tried to propagate this one, as it self-seeds and new plants can be moved to desired area.

Provenance:



Prairie Smoke

Geum triflorum

Benoite à trois fleurs

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)
Native to: Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: RO
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 15-40 cm (6-16")
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Alvars, prairies. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Early flowering (1 May in 2008) in full sun and relatively dry conditions. In 2007, one plant flowered again in the fall. Flower is small, with bright pink sepals and cream-coloured petals, but long feathery fruit heads make this plant very attractive and unusual looking.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed. Note: seeds that had fallen to the ground had very low germination rate; better to collect mature seeds from the seed heads.

Provenance: Dan Brunton



Canada Anemone

Anemone canadensis

Anémone du Canada

Family: Crowfoot (Ranunculaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; feeder clearing
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Late spring
Height: 30-40 cm (1-1.5’)
Light requirements: Full to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Open woods, ditches.

Wildlife use: Source of nectar and pollen for bees and flies. Birds eat seeds.

Notes: Spreads aggressively in moist sites, less invasive in average soil; spreads via underground rhizomes. Makes a great ground cover. Root was used for medicinal purposes by aboriginal peoples.

Propagation:

Start from seed, which can be harvested in August. Note: seeds remain green and must be tested to see if they are ready to be removed from plant. They should come loose easily when touched. Seeds require cold moist stratification. Poor to no germination in 2009 and 2010. In 2011, trying putting seeds into damp vermiculite immediately after collecting.

Individual plants do not transplant well, but will eventually become established at the new location.

Provenance:



Red Baneberry

Actaea rubra

Actée rouge

Family: Crowfoot (Ranunculaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 60 cm (2’)
Light requirements: Full to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral, slightly acidic

Natural habitat: Woods in Greenbelt, Gatineau Park. Common in the Ottawa region and native across Canada.

Wildlife use: Bright red berries are eaten by birds, but are toxic to humans.

Notes: Bright red berries in mid to late summer. Excellent choice for a shady spot. Don't let soil dry out. Does NOT spread quickly.

Propagation: Hard to grow from seed. In 2012, we collected ripe berries on 11 July and followed the Native Plant Network protocol: remove pulp by squashing the berries in a sieve and picking out the seeds. Let seeds dry for 1 week. Then mix seeds with an equal amount of damp vermiculite (no water visible) in a sealable baggie. Place in refrigerator for at least 5 months.

Provenance: Unknown - probably collected locally



White Baneberry

Actaea pachypoda

Actée à gros pédicelles

Family: Crowfoot (Ranunculaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 60 cm (2’)
Light requirements: Full to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral, slightly acidic

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Berries are eaten by a variety of birds, deer, and small mammals, but are toxic to people.

Notes:

White berries with black centres on red stalks in mid to late Summer; also known as doll's eyes. Excellent choice for shady spot. Don't let soil dry out.

Does NOT spread quickly.

Propagation:

Sow fresh seeds as soon as they ripen in late summer. Should flower in 2 years.

Or divide roots in late fall or early spring.

Provenance:



Thimbleweed

Anemone virginiana

Anémone de Virginie

Family: Crowfoot (Ranunculaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: RO OM
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Early summer
Height: 30-60 cm (1-2’)
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Meadows, open woods. Often next to trails in the Greenbelt and Gatineau Park. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: The flower is greenish white and easy to miss. However, the thimble-shaped seed heads are attractive and they stay on the plant well into the winter. Does not spread quickly.

Propagation: Start from seed, which can be harvested in late fall through winter. Seed requires cold moist stratification.

Provenance:



Swamp Milkweed

Asclepias incarnata

Asclépiade incarnate

Family: Milkweed (Asclepiaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; next to Amphibian Pond
Backyard garden bed: BB PW
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Mid-summer
Height: 1-1.5 m (3-5’)
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Wet areas, near ponds and streams. Common in natural wetlands around Ottawa.

Wildlife use: Larval food plant for the Monarch butterfly. Excellent nectar plant for a variety of other butterflies. Butterflies are more likely to be attracted to multiple plants.

In 2011, we saw snowberry clearwing moths and a hummingbird clearwing moth on swamp milkweed flowers. Also nectaring were many bumblebees, honey bees, and both species of digger wasps (Sphex ichneumoneus and S. pensylvanicus).

Notes: Attractive, fragrant, long-lasting flowers. Self-seeds agressively, but well worth the extra maintenance this requires. Tends to grow in clumps.

In dry conditions, plants become stressed and are susceptible to orange aphids. In 2009, we planted this species in our new "bog" and had no aphids.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seeds, which mature in early fall. Cold treatment is not necessary.

However, plants are slow to start growing; in 2015, 2nd-year plants did not emerge until end of May. First-year plants very small.

Provenance: Seeds collect in BYG and Barryvale.



Spikenard

Aralia racemosa

Aralie à grappes

Family: Ginseng (Araliaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 1-1.5 m (3-5’)
Light requirements: Full to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Uncommon in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Berries eaten by wildlife.

Notes: Tall, attractive plant. Purple berries in fall. Aromatic root used in herbal medicine. Spreads by runners. Good ground cover in shady areas.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance: Claudia



Field Pussytoes

Antennaria neglecta

Antennaire négligée

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: RO OM
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 30 cm (1’) or less
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average to dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Well drained fields, pastures. Open gravelly areas. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Host plant to larvae of the Painted Lady butterfly. Elfins and Spring Azures seen on these plants in May.

From www.illinoiswildflowers.info: Small bees and flies visit the flowers, including Halictid bees, Andrenid bees, cuckoo bees (Nomada spp., Sphecodes spp.), Syrphid flies, Muscid flies, Calliphorid flies, and Tachinid flies. The caterpillars of Painted Lady feed on the foliage. Among vertebrate animals, some upland gamebirds feed on the foliage and/or seedheads, including the Ruffed Grouse, Bobwhite Quail, and Greater Prairie Chicken; White-tailed Deer also feed on these plants, especially during the spring.

Notes: Spreads by stolons - slowly in the wild, but much faster in garden conditions; often forms dense mats of small rosettes.

Propagation: Start from seed, which can be collected in spring as soon as they start to loosen from the head - become fluffy. Seeds require cold moist stratification.

Provenance:



Blue Giant Hyssop

Agastache foeniculum

Agastache fenouil

Family: Mint (Lamiaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: HE
Flower colour: Blue to violet
Type:
Blooming time: Mid-summer
Height: 0.5-1.5 m (2-5’)
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Meadows, prairies, thickets. Rare escape from cultivation.

Wildlife use: Excellent nectar plant. Attracts bees, butterflies, and other beneficial insects.

Notes: Attractive purple flower spikes atop green, crinkly foliage that has the scent of anise. Leaves can be used in cooking and for tea. Flower spikes good for dried flower arrangements. Self-seeds readily.

Propagation: Very easy to start from seeds which ripen in fall. Or plants can be divided in spring or fall.

Provenance:



Pearly Everlasting

Anaphalis margaritacea

Immortelle blanche

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Butterfly Meadow
Backyard garden bed: BB RO
Flower colour: Yellow flowers surrounded by white "bracts"
Type:
Blooming time: Mid to late summer
Height: 30-60 cm (1-2’)
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Found in dry, rocky soil, pastures. Common in the Ottawa region and found across Canada.

Wildlife use: Good nectar plant for butterflies. Larval host for American Lady (Vanessa virginiensis) butterfly; adults, pupae, and caterpillars have been seen on plants at the FWG. Leaves sometimes look very damaged by larvae but plants come back and bloom well once established. Caterpillars tend to stay in the upper parts of the plant and build leaf or petal nests to hide in.

Notes: Attractive garden plant: grey-green foliage. White flowers dry very well for bouquets. Drought tolerant. Spreads slowly from main plant.

Propagation: Fairly easy to grow from seed. Can be divided, but as roots are shallow this can be tricky.

Provenance:



Nodding Onion

Allium cernuum

Ail penché

Family: Lily (Liliaceae)
Native to: North America
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: RO SO
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Mid-summer
Height: 30-60 cm (1-2’)
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral or slightly acidic

Natural habitat: Meadows, prairies, open woods. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Attracts butterflies.

Notes: Grass-like leaves, onion-like, bell-shaped, white to pink flower clusters hang down gracefully; easy to grow. Drought tolerant.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seeds (available from Gardens North), which mature in early fall and require moist stratification. Or divide bulbs, which form beside mature bulbs, in spring or fall.

Provenance:



Common Milkweed

Asclepias syriaca

Asclépiade commune

Family: Milkweed (Asclepiadaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: In front of Interpretive Centre; edges of Butterfly Meadow; east end of Amphibian Pond
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 1-1.5 m (3-5’)
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Waste places. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Host plant for Monarch Butterfly larvae. A huge variety of insects - ants, flies, beetles, bugs, bees, wasps, and butterflies - nectar on this plant.

Notes: Spreads via root system, too aggressively for most gardens. Very fragrant. In 2009, we tried this species in the Backyard Garden (butterfly bed). It grew very tall, but seemed healthy. However, by August, the flowers had turned black and the leaves were looked rather ragged (similar to plants in the wild).

In 2011, we tried an idea from Master Gardeners: replace bottom of large pots with screening. Planted second-year seedlings in the pots and placed pots in butterfly bed (BYG).

Common Milkweed is considered a "noxious species" in Ontario as it is poisonous to cattle and can invade pastures.

Propagation: Stratification improves germination. Seeds sometimes germinate a week after removal from refrigerator; other times, it takes almost a month. Germination rate high.p>

Very slow growing. In 2015 2nd-year plants (which started growing only at end of May) were the size we want 1st year plants to be. Start earlier? Ensure more light? Slow growth probably because most resources going to roots.

Provenance: Huge area of milkweeds south of the airport.



Jack-in-the-Pulpit

Arisaema triphyllum

Arisème petit-prêcheur

Family: Arum (Araceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Dark purple and green
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 30-90 cm (1-3’)
Light requirements: Full to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral or slightly acidic

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Unusual flower, which develops into a tight cluster of red berries in late summer; the richer and moister the soil, the larger and healthier the plants.

Propagation: Collect ripe berries in early Fall, mash slightly and plant fresh before they dry out. The seeds often take 2 years to germinate. Can also be propagated by separating cormlets, which sprout around the edges of the parent corm in fall; plant corms shallowly 3-5 cm deep.

Provenance:



Red Columbine

Aquilegia canadensis

Ancolie du Canada

Family: Crowfoot (Ranunculaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: RO WW
Flower colour: Red and yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 30-60 cm (1-2’)
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Slopes. Edges of woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Nectar source for hummingbirds and butterflies.

Notes: Lovely, spring-blooming wildflower. Perennial but short-lived. Flowers of native plant are slightly smaller than those of horticultural varieties and are always red with yellow centres. Plants are larger and paler in semi-shade, smaller but brilliantly coloured in sun. Self-seeds. Dry seed cases split, throwing seeds a couple of feet from the parent plant. Seeds germinate the following season.

Propagation: Easy to start from seed. Seeds require cold moist stratification and must have light to germinate. Excellent rate of germination obtained after 4 months in refrigerator.

Provenance:



Butterfly milkweed

Asclepias tuberosa

Asclépiade tubéreuse

Family: Milkweed (Asclepiadaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: RO
Flower colour: Orange
Type:
Blooming time: Mid to late summer
Height: 30-75 cm (1-2.5’)
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Meadows, prairies. Rare in the Ottawa region, which is at the northern limit of its range.

Wildlife use: Excellent source of nectar. Confirmed as a host plant for Monarch butterfly larvae. Need many plants as its narrow leaves are quickly eaten by caterpillars.

Notes: Tends to be shrubby, but low-growing. May need to be protected over winter. Does not flower until second summer. Plant emerges quite late in the spring long after other plants are up. In 2011, one rockery plant and several plants in volunteers' gardens did not put in an appearance until end of July.

Do not cultivate near it as it does not like disturbance. Tolerates drought.

Thomas Rainer: "The height of its flower is exactly the height of the grasses it grows among. Its narrow leaves hug its stems to efficiently emerge through a crowded mix. It has a taproot that drills through the fibrous roots of grasses.... So if you want to add butterfly weed to your garden, you might drift it in beds several feet apart and tuck some low grasses in as companions.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed, after 4 months of cold moist stratification. In early spring, plant seeds indoors just under soil surface. Transplant outside in permanent location as it has a long taproot and is not easily moved.

Provenance:



Whorled Wood Aster

Oclemena acuminata

Aster acuminé

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer to fall
Height: 30-90 cm (1-3')
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Uncommon in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Source of nectar for pollinators; seeds for birds.

Notes:

Propagation: Fairly easy from seed, after cold moist stratification

Provenance:



Smooth Aster

Symphyotrichum laeve

Aster lisse

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: Blue to violet
Type:
Blooming time: Mid to late summer
Height: 30-90 cm (1-3')
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Fields, prairies, woods. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Nectar for butterflies and other insects. May be eaten by groundhogs.

Notes: A tough adaptable species that Cullina rates as one of the best asters for gardens. Drought tolerant, neat habit, attractive leaves. We had good germination and plants have done well at the FWG and have bloomed prolifically.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed. Cold moist stratify seeds for 2 weeks, then plant immediately. Do not cover seed but keep moist until germination begins.

Provenance: Seed obtained at Bedrock Gardens in Edmonton in 2000



Panicled Aster

Symphotrichum lanceolatum

Aster simple

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: OM
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer and fall
Height: 1-1.5 m (3-5’)
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Smooth stem, willow-like leaves; vigorous grower in our native bed.

Propagation:

Provenance:



New England Aster

Symphyotrichum novae-angliae

Aster de Nouvelle-Angleterre

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Butterfly Meadow
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: Shades of violet, dark pink
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer and fall
Height: 1-1.5 m (3-5')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Fields, meadows, roadsides. Very common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Excellent nectar and pollen source for bees and butterflies. Seeds eaten by chickadees, sparrows, and finches. Syrphid flies, wasps, and some day-flying moths all nectar at this plant. Larval host for northern crescent butterfly.

Notes: Cut back in mid-summer before blooming to produce a bushier plant. Susceptible to mildew if crowded with poor air circulation. Adaptable to most soil conditions in the garden. Self-seeds aggressively.

Propagation: Start from seeds, which mature in late fall or divide plants in spring.

Provenance:



Large-leaved Aster

Eurybia macrophylla

Aster à grandes feuilles

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Blue to violet
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 30-90 cm (1-3')
Light requirements: Shade to part sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common throughout the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Spreads vigorously. In the wild, occurs as expanses of large leaves with few flowering plants. More likely to flower in a garden.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed. Requires cold, damp treatment.

Provenance:



Heath Aster

Symphotrichum ericoides

Aster éricoïde

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: OM
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer
Height: 0.5-1 m (1.5-3')
Light requirements: Full sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Fields. Rare in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Good late source of nectar and pollen for a wide variety of bees and flies. Plant sale customer reports bumblebees all over it.

Notes: As its name implies, this aster with grow in in scrubby poorer conditions than many of our other local asters. Has small fine leaves and many, many small flowers (about 1 cm diameter). Spreads quickly. Looks almost like a shrub in our Backyard Garden.

Propagation: From seed.

Provenance:



False Sunflower

Heliopsis helianthoides

Héliopsis faux-hélianthe

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: SO
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer
Height: 60-150 cm (2-5')
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Open woods. Uncommon in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Attracts a number of bees and other insects.

Notes: Actually a member of the Aster family.

Propagation:

Provenance:



Sharp-lobed Hepatica

Hepatica acutiloba

Hépatique acutilobée

Family: Crowfoot (Ranunculaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White, pale pink, lavender
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 15 cm (6")
Light requirements: Full to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average to dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: One of the first-blooming spring wildflowers. Flowers before leaves come out. Very slow to spread.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Round-lobed Hepatica

Hepatica americana

Trinitaire

Family: Crowfoot (Ranunculaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White, pale pink, lavender
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 15 cm (6")
Light requirements: Full to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average to dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: One of the first-blooming spring wildflowers. Flowers before producing leaves. Very slow to spread.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Showy Tick-Trefoil

Desmodium canadense

Desmodie du Canada

Family: Bean (Fabaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: Blue to violet
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 30-150 cm (0.5-4')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Damp open woodland. Uncommon in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Attractive to bees and butterflys. Larval host plant for the Hoary Edge butterfly and the Eastern Tailed Blue.

Notes: Very easy to grow, but has a tendency to become invasive. Flowers are short-lived and plant is rather weedy looking, but a a member of the legume family it fixes nitrogen in the soil.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Dutchman's Breeches

Dicentra cucullaria

Dicentre à capuchon

Family: Fumitory (Fumariaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 10-20 cm (5-9")
Light requirements: Full to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Good nectar plant for bumblebees.

Notes: Lovely delicate plant with fernlike leaves and small, white flowers with yellow tips. Goes dormant in early summer.

Propagation: Seeds require cold moist stratification and should be sown as soon as they ripen in early summer. Or separate bulblets from mature bulbs and plant 1" deep.

Provenance: Old Field Garden 2007



Wild Bleeding Heart

Dicentra eximia

Dicentra eximia

Family: Fumitory (Fumariaceae)
Native to: North America
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 30 cm (12")
Light requirements: Full to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Rocky woodlands. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Foliage delicate touquoise green with pale rose flowers.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Purple Coneflower

Echinacea purpurea

Échinacée pourpre

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: North America
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Summer and fall
Height: 60-90 cm (2-3')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Prairies, clearings. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Excellent nectar plant for butterflies.

Notes: Easy to grow.

Propagation: Not tried

Provenance: Commercial nursery



Fireweed

Epilobium angustifolium

Lilas de montagne

Family: Evening-primrose (Onagraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: OM
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 0.5-2 m (2-8')
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Clearings, burned areas, roadsides. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Attracts several species of bumble bees, syrphid flies, hummingbirds, butterflies. Chipmunks like the seeds.

Notes: Name comes from habit of growing in clearings after fire. Self-seeds. Tends to jump into other beds in our Backyard Garden. Spreads by roots to form dense stands.

Propagation: Relatively easy from seed. Seeds need cold, moist stratification for several months, but then germinate quickly after removing from cold.

Provenance:



Daisy Fleabane

Erigeron annuus

Erigéron annuel

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Butterfly Meadow; Old Field
Backyard garden bed: OM
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 30-90 cm (1-3')
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Fields, open woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Nectar source for small bees and other pollinators.

Notes: Self-seeds quite aggressively.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance: Transplanted from near Calabogie.



Philadelphia Fleabane

Erigeron philadephicus

Erigéron de Philadelphie

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Old Field
Backyard garden bed: OM
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 15-75 cm (6-30")
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Fields, open woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes:

Propagation:

Provenance:



Trout Lily

Erythronium americanum

Érythrone d'Amérique

Family: Lily (Liliaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 10-15 cm (4-6")
Light requirements: Full to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Common spring ephemeral wildflower. The two broad, basal leaves are mottled, a bit like a trout. Also called Adder's-tongue and Dog-tooth Violet.

Propagation: Can be started from seed but plants take many years to flower. Root offshoots can be divided in the fall (Johnson-100 Easy to Grow Native Plants, p. 110). The bulbs are small, but tend to be very deep in the soil. Need to dig much deeper than you would expect to get the bulbs out without damage.

Provenance:



Spotted Joe Pye weed

Eutrochium maculatum

Eupatoire maculée

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Butterfly Meadow; next to Amphibian Pond
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: Pink to Red
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 0.6-1.5 m (2-5')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Shores, swamps. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Excellent nectar plant for butterflies and bees.

Notes: Although grows in very damp areas in the wild, can tolerate drier conditions in a garden.

Propagation: From seeds, which dry and become fluffy in the fall.

Provenance:



Common Boneset

Eupatorium perfoliatum

Eupatoire perfoliée

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 0.5-1.5 m (2-5')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods, thickets, stream banks, pond edges. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Nectar for butterflies.

Notes: Low maintenance. Clump-forming. Opposite leaves are joined at the bases so that stem looks like it passes through them (perfoliatum = through the leaves). Does much better in our wet area near the pond than in other garden beds.

Propagation: Seeds become dry and "fluffy" when mature. Cold moist treatment needed. Seeds need light to germinate.

Provenance:



White Snakeroot

Ageratina altissima

Eupatoire rugueuse

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer into fall
Height: 0.9 -1.2 m (3-4')
Light requirements: Shade to part sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Leaf miners tunnel through the leaves.

Notes: Self-seeds, but not aggressively. A few square feet in the Ash Woodlot were planted with seed in 1995. Now Snakeroot grows irregularly all along the central path. Wilts when dry, but recovers after rain or watering. In the Backyard Garden, we eventually had to remove some plants that had spread through the woodland area.

Propagation: Easy from seed, which can be collected in late fall. Wait for seeds to loosen and start to fall. Seeds require cold moist treatment for several months, but germinate very quickly when removed from cold.

Provenance:



Bloodroot

Sanguinaria canadensis

Sanguinaire du Canada

Family: Poppy (Papaveraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Early spring
Height: 10-30 cm (6-12")
Light requirements: Shade to part sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Seeds are partly covered by an "aril" that attracts ants. Ants carry the seeds to their nests, eat the aril, and leave the seed to grow into a new plant, often in an unexpected location.

Pollinated by small bees. Nomada and Andrenid bees seen on flowers, as well as bee fly (Bombylius major)

Notes: Bloodroot is one of the earliest blooming wildflowers in our area - even earlier than Trillium and Hepatica. Beautiful waxy flowers last only a few days. Attractive leaf shape; interesting texture in woodland garden. Spreads by rhizomes, although slowly.

Propagation: Can be grown from seed or large clumps can be divided.

Provenance:



Rough Goldenrod

Solidago rugosa

Verge d'or rugueuse

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer and fall
Height: 0.5-1.3 m (2-4')
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Roadsides, thickets. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Attractive to many insects.

Notes: Regular arrangement of leaves, which stick our straight from stem, provides interesting texture in a wildflower garden.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed. Germinates readily after several months of cold, moist stratification.

Provenance:



Grass-leaved Goldenrod

Euthamia graminifolia

Verge d'or graminifoliée

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Old Field
Backyard garden bed: OM
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 60-90 cm (2-3')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Beaches, meadows, stream banks. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Great source of nectar and pollen for insects.

Notes: Narrow leaves make this goldenrod look "tidier" than some of the more common species.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Queen-of-the-Prairie

Filipendula rubra

Reine des prairies

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)
Native to: North America
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Butterfly Meadow
Backyard garden bed: OM
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 0.5-2 m (2-6')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Meadows, prairies. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Nectar for bees and other insects.

Notes:

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Common Strawberry

Fragaria virginiana

Fraisier de Virginie

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: OM WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 15 cm (6")
Light requirements: Sun and shade
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Fields. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Edible berries are attractive to wildlife.

Notes: Easy to grow. Spreads by above-ground runners. Good low ground cover. Fruits in late spring.

Propagation: Not tried

Provenance:



Blue-stemmed Goldenrod

Solidago caesia

Verge d'or bleuâtre

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer
Height: 30-90 cm (1-3')
Light requirements: Full to part shade
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Clearings, fields, wood edges. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Good choice in woodland gardens. Provides colour in late summer and early fall. Attractive shape.

Propagation: From seed. Needs cold moist stratification.

Provenance: Claudia's garden



Canada Goldenrod

Solidago canadensis

Verge d'or du Canada

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Butterfly Meadow
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 0.6-1.6 m (2-5')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Abandoned fields. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Hosts many, many species of insects and is a good nectar source for butterflies.

Notes: A bit untidy and aggressive for most gardens. Very good for open naturalized meadows.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Canada Lily

Lilium canadense

Lys du Canada

Family: Lily (Liliaceae)
Native to: North America
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Orange
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 60-150 cm (2-5')
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Meadows, wood edges. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Spectacular multiple flowers on a single stem. Looks like an elaborate candelabra.

Propagation: Difficult to grow from seed; takes years to mature to flowering stage. Can be divided by digging up the root after 4-5 years and separating the small bulblets that are produced around the main root. See excellent article by Philip Fry.

Provenance:



Cardinal Flower

Lobelia cardinalis

Lobélie cardinale

Family: Lobelia (Lobeliaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: Red
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer
Height: 60-120 cm (2-4')
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Wet
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Stream banks. Uncommon in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Attracts hummingbirds.

Notes: Brilliant scarlet colour makes small flowers stand out against green foliage in a garden. Needs to be near water. Individual plants short-lived. Best if enough plants are established to self-seed. Seems to grow well among rocks and in part shade.
Earlier attempts to grow cardinal flower failed as plants died after several years. The current ones (planted 2009) are happier (and bigger) in sun in a damp bed. We now plant seedlings among the parent plants every year to maintain the "population" as the individual plants are not long-lived.

Propagation: Collect seeds when pods are completely dry. Discovered best way to collect seed is by pulling pods off stem and rolling gently over an envelop. Tiny seeds fall out of bottom of pod. Seeds require cold moist treatment and need light to germinate.

Provenance: Original plants from Philip Fry.



Great Blue Lobelia

Lobelia siphilitica

Lobélie bleue

Family: Lobelia (Lobeliaceae)
Native to: North America
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: OM PW
Flower colour: Blue to violet
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer
Height: 30-100 cm (1.5-3')
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Wet
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Swamps. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Good nectar source. Pollinated by bees. Attracts hummingbirds.

Notes: Basal whorl of leaves; sends up flower spike in late summer.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed. Germinates within 2 weeks after several months of cold, moist stratification.

Provenance:



Wild Lily of the Valley

Maianthemum canadense

Petit muguet

Family: Lily (Liliaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 4-15 cm (3-6")
Light requirements: Shade to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Shady woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Heart-shaped leaves, usually two to a stem. Star-shaped flowers later form cluster of berries. Spreads outward from original plants like garden Lily of the Valley (although not as aggressively). Good low ground cover.

Propagation: Not tried

Provenance:



Wild Mint

Mentha arvensis

Menthe des champs

Family: Mint (Lamiaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: White, blue or violet
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 15-60 cm (6-24")
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Not found in the wild in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Attracts a large number of bees and other insects.

Notes: Mints spread rapidly.

Propagation: Not tried

Provenance:



Virginia Bluebells

Mertensia virginica

Mertensia de Virginie

Family: Borage (Boraginaceae)
Native to: North America
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Blue to violet
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 30-60 cm (1- 2')
Light requirements: Shade to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Loses foliage in summer.

Propagation: Obtained seeds from Jennifer Mix in early summer 2012; put into damp vermiculite over winter. Seeds started to germinate in January in refrigerator. Potted them up (60), grew to second leaf, then all wilted and died in May. Seemed to have tiny tubers, so stored 3 flats at back of patio all summer, fall, winter. Spring 2014, pulled out flats and put them on shelf outside. About 20 plants grew (of remainder most disturbed by animals, so need better security.

Provenance: Jennifer Mix garden on Sunnyside, 2012.



Mitrewort, Bishop's Cap

Mitella diphylla

Mitrelle à deux feuilles

Family: Saxifrage (Saxifragaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 25-45 cm (10-18")
Light requirements: Full to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Basal and stem leaves; beautifully fringed flower. Shiny black seeds form in tiny cups attached to the flower stem.

Propagation: Can be grown from seed, but needs cold moist stratification and germination rate seems to be low. Spreads at a moderate rate in the garden.

Provenance:



Scarlet Beebalm

Monarda didyma

Monarde écarlate

Family: Mint (Lamiaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: Red
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 50-1.3 m (1.5-4')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Thickets. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Red flowers are very attractive to hummingbirds. Good nectar plant for bees and butterflies.

Notes: Easy to grow. Adds bright colour to the garden in mid-summer.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seeds. No stratification required. Or divide plants as they become crowded.

Provenance:



Wild Bergamot

Monarda fistulosa

Monarde fistuleuse

Family: Mint (Lamiaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: Pink to mauve
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 50-1.3 m (1.5-4')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Clearings, fields, thickets. Very rare in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Excellent nectar plant for insects and hummingbirds.

Notes: Easy to grow, attractive. When finished flowering in mid-August, may become mildewed.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seeds. No stratification required. Or divide plants as they become crowded.

Provenance:



Evening-Primrose

Oenothera biennis

Onagre

Family: Evening-primrose (Onagraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Old Field; other areas
Backyard garden bed: OM
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 1-2 m (3-6')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Roadsides, waste places. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Goldfinches, especially, love the seeds. Chickadees seen eating seeds. Woodpeckers look for weevils in stems. Larval host for Primrose Moth (Schinia florida) and seed-eating moths (Mompha sp.). Bumble bees use pollen and nectar. Also attracts Japanese beetles, possibly luring them away from other garden plants.

Notes: Biennial; rosette of leaves the first year, flower spike in the second year. Flowers open in the evening. Although blooming time for individual flowers is short, successive blooms along the stem provide nectar and pollen (and later seeds) for an extended period. Spreads too agressively for most gardens, but good in naturalized meadows and fields.

Propagation: Not tried. Biennial, but rosettes may persist for two years.

Provenance:



Small Sundrops

Oenothera perennis

Onagre pérennante

Family: Evening-primrose (Onagraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: RO
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 30-90 cm (1-3')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Fields, meadows, open woods. Rare in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Day-blooming, unlike Evening Primrose, which opens late in the day. Large showy flowers. Drought tolerant.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance: Donated by Carol MacLeod, who said "The sundrops came from a Sturgeon River canoe trip, but I've seen the same ones at Lac Le Peche."



Sweet Cicely

Osmorhiza claytonii

Osmorhize de Clayton

Family: Carrot (Apiaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 45-90 cm (1.5-3')
Light requirements: Full to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Roots smell of anise. Spreads quite aggressively and needs to be thinned every year.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Zigzag Goldenrod

Solidago flexicaulis

Verge d'or à tige zigzaguante

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer and fall
Height: 30-90 cm (1-3')
Light requirements: Shade to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Clearings, fields, wood edges. Uncommon in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Graceful, attractive goldenrod species. Flowers grow in small clusters along stem, which zigzags from leaf to leaf and between flower clusters. Spreads, but not rapidly. Tends to become scattered in a garden rather than staying in one clump.

Propagation: Relatively easy from seed. Needs cold moist stratification. Germination good within a week of removing from cold.

Provenance:



Foxglove Beard-tongue

Penstemon digitalis

Penstémon digitale

Family: Figwort (Scrophulariaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Butterfly Meadow
Backyard garden bed: OM
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Early summer
Height: 60-90 cm (2-3')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Dry to average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Fields, open woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Good early nectar plant. Attracts butterflies.

Notes: Forms clumps. Leaves of plants in the butterfly meadow were eaten over the winter, but plants recovered during the growing season.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed.

Provenance:



Hairy Beardtongue

Penstemon hirsutus

Penstémon hirsute

Family: Figwort (Scrophulariaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Butterfly Meadow
Backyard garden bed: OM BB
Flower colour: Mauve
Type:
Blooming time: Early summer
Height: 30-60 cm (1-2')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Alvars, fields, woods. Uncommon in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Attracts butterflies. Pollinated by bees. Bright green sweat bees have been seen collecting pollen from the plants in the Backyard Garden. Supposedly not eaten by deer.

Notes: Leaves are smooth, but stem and petioles are covered with fine hairs.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed. Seeds ripen in late summer; collect as soon as brown seed capsules start to open.

Provenance:



Blue Phlox

Phlox divaricata

Phlox bleu

Family: Phlox (Polemoniaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Blue to violet
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 15-45 cm (6-18")
Light requirements: Full to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Open woods. Uncommon in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Said to attract hummingbirds and butterflies.

Notes: Showy, fragrant flowers.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Clammy Ground-cherry

Physalis heterophylla

Cerise de terre sauvage

Family: Nightshade (Solanaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: OM
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 20-70 cm (10-24")
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Fields, thickets. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Long trailing stems spread along the ground.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Obedient Plant

Physostegia virginiana

Cataleptique

Family: Mint (Lamiaceae)
Native to: North America
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer
Height: 1-1.5 m (3-5')
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Not found in the wild in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use: Attracts hummingbirds. Valuable nectar plant for insects.

Notes: Showy tubular flowers in 4 columns along stems. Spreads to form a dense solid stand.

Propagation: Easy to divide.

Provenance:



May Apple

Podophyllum peltatum

Podophylle pelté

Family: Barberry (Berberidaceae)
Native to: North America
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Early spring
Height: 30-45 cm (1-1.5')
Light requirements: Full to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Open woods, wood edges. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: The range of this species stops south of us. Our plant was a gift and is doing nicely, although not spreading as quickly as it would in its natural range. In the wild, it forms large clumps.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Pickerelweed

Pontederia cordata

Pontédérie à feuilles en coeur

Family: Pickerelweed (Pontederiaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Amphibian Pond
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: Blue to violet
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 30-1.3 m (1-4')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Wet
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Ponds. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Water plant. Grows in dense clumps of large shiny leaves that emerge from the water. Spikes of deep blue flowers are produced in late summer after arrowheads have finished blooming. Introduced in our Amphibian Pond but did not survive.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Silverweed

Potentilla anserina

Potentille ansérine

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: All summer
Height: 15 cm (6")
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average to moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Pond edges, stream banks. Uncommon in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Fast spreading by red runners (like strawberry plants). Attractive fern-like silvery leaves. Good low ground cover, especially around ponds, but will grow in drier areas as well. Will tolerate hot sun.

Propagation: Can be divided at any time, but small plants are easiest to transplant.

Provenance:



Common Cinqefoil

Potentilla simplex

Potentille simple

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Fields
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Early summer
Height: 10-60 cm (3-24")
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Open woods. Uncommon in the Ottawa region (but abundant in a few places). Weak-stemmed.

Wildlife use:

Notes:

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Gray-headed Prairie Coneflower

Ratibida pinnata

Ratibida à feuilles pennées

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: SO OM
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 90-150 cm (3-5')
Light requirements: Sun; thrives in full sun.
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Meadows, prairies. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Nectar source for butterflies and pollinating insects. Birds eat the seeds. Young plants are sometimes eaten by rabbits.

Notes: Beautiful, easy to grow tall plant with long-lasting, prolific flowers.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seeds which mature in mid-autumn. Can also transplant small offspring that surround the parent plant.

Provenance: Seed from Gardens North (circa 2003).



Black-eyed Susan

Rudbeckia hirta

Rudbeckie hérissée

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Butterfly Meadow
Backyard garden bed: BB OM
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 30-90 cm (1-3')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Fields, waste places. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Nectar and pollen attract a variety of insects. Seeds are eaten by birds.

Notes: Good choice for clay soil. Can tolerate heat, drought, and a variety of soil conditions. Biennial but self-seeds; may be showy one year, sparse the next. In 2009, all plants grew from the seeds of 2008 plants; most bloomed.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed and plants bloom the first year.

Provenance:



Arrowhead

Sagittaria latifolia

Sagittaire à larges feuilles

Family: Water-plantain (Alismataceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Amphibian Pond
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 15-60 cm (6-24")
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Wet
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Pond edges, shallow water. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Provides needed shade for wildlife in ponds. Waterfowl eat seeds and young tubers.

Notes: Water plant. Attractive flowers and large arrow-shaped leaves. Easy to grow.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Cup Plant

Silphium perfoliatum

Silphe perfolié

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: SO
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 1.5-2.5 m (4-8')
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Open woods. Rare in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Birds love the seeds. Nectar and pollen for bees and butterflies. Cupped leaves hold water.

Notes: Grows well in full sun. Self-seeds and spreads quickly in the wild. Should not be planted where it might escape into natural areas.

Propagation:

Provenance:



Blue-eyed Grass

Sisyrinchium angustifolium

Bermudienne à feuilles étroites

Family: Iris (Iridaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: Blue to violet
Type:
Blooming time: Spring and summer
Height: 10-30 cm (4-24")
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Wet
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Meadows, shores. Rare in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Blooms look like tiny irises; leaves are grass-like and have a bluish tint. Self-seeds readily once establish, but easy to control.

Propagation: Best left to self seed. Seeds need 8 weeks in moist soil or vermiculite at room temperature followed by normal stratification for 6-8 weeks. Seeds need light to germinate. http://edmontonnaturalizationgroup.org/blog/2011/07/07/wildflower-of-the-month-blue-eyed-grass-sisyrinchium-montanum

Provenance:



False Solomon's-seal

Smilacina racemosa

Smilacine à grapes

Family: Lily (Liliaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 30-90 cm (1-3')
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Clearings, woods, wood edges. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Cluster of berries at end of each stem after flowering. Light pinky-beige at first, but turn red as they ripen.

Propagation: No success so far. Seeds must be removed from ripe berries and not allowed to dry out. Cold moist stratification required.

Provenance:



Starry False Solomon's-seal

Smilacina stellata

Smilacine étoilée

Family: Lily (Liliaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 30-60 cm (1-2')
Light requirements: Part sun
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Fields, open woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Ripe berries become nearly black.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Grey-stemmed Goldenrod

Solidago nemoralis

Verge d'or nemorale

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Old Field
Backyard garden bed: RO
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer
Height: 15-50 cm (6-20")
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average to dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Dunes, fields, upland woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Nectar and pollen for a large number of insects.

Notes: Attractive low-growing, slender goldenrod with thick plumes of yellow flowers. The greyish stem is densely covered with fine hairs. Thrives if grown on poor soil but can be short-lived if soil is too rich. Growth habit very affected by growing conditions. In the wild, usually seen locally as single plumes in a dry, grassy field. In our rockery, single plants rapidly became huge masses of flowers.

Propagation: Easy from seed.

Provenance:



Rose Twisted-stalk

Streptopus lanceolatus

Streptope rose

Family: Lily (Liliaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Spring and summer
Height: 30-45 cm (1-1.5')
Light requirements: Full to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Cold woods. Uncommon in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Badly damaged by unknown animal in 1997. Recovered subsequently.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Wood Poppy

Stylophorum diphyllum

Stylophore à deux feuilles

Family: Poppy (Papaveraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 30-45 cm (1-1.5')
Light requirements: Full to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Open woods. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Peterson guide reports this species as endangered. However, once established, plants spread by self-seeding.

Propagation: Seed must not dry out. Best if sowed as soon as it is ripe. We have been unable to grow this species from seed, but regularly move "baby" plants to new locations.
In July 2012, many pods already very dried and seeds gone. Collected 2 green pods and removed seeds: one set were brown, the other white, but came away from pod easily. All into damp vermic in refrig. Tremayne had collected seeds in June as well, so 2 batches.

Provenance: Dan Brunton 1996



Tall Meadow-rue

Thalictrum pubescens

Pigamon pubescent

Family: Crowfoot (Ranunculaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 1-1.8 m (3-6')
Light requirements: Part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Ditches, stream banks, swamps. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes:

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed.

Provenance:



Starflower

Trientalis borealis

Trientale boréale

Family: Primrose (Primulaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 10-30 cm (4-12")
Light requirements: Full to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Cold woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: This species seems to be delicate. We've planted it in our Backyard Garden several times, but it disappears.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



White Trillium

Trillium grandiflorum

Trille grandiflore

Family: Lily (Liliaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 15-50 cm (6-20")
Light requirements: Full to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Large showy white flowers fade to pink after a week. Seeds seldom seen.

Propagation: Can be propagated from seeds, but takes many years to mature to flowering stage. First-year plants have only one slim leaf and may easily be mistaken for a weed.

Provenance:



Narrow-leaved Cattail

Typha angustifolia

Massette à feuilles étroites

Family: Cattail (Typhaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Amphibian Pond
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: Green
Type:
Blooming time: Early summer
Height: 1.2-2.6 m (4-8')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Wet
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Pond edges, swamps. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Inner stems, roots, and pollen are all edible. Muskrats eat the roots. In spring, Red-winged Blackbirds construct nests on the dry "stilts" of last year's plants about half a meter above the water level.

Notes: Male and female flowers on a single stem; male higher up. Female flowers turn dark brown as seeds mature. Spreads by thick rhizomes. Produces lots of debris as plants dry up in the fall and over winter.

Propagation: Can be started from seed by laying collected seed heads on wet bank of stream or pond. Spreads rapidly by rhizomes and can eventually fill in a pond.

Provenance: Peter Elliot is reported to have brought the original cattails to the Amphibian Pond c. 1992



Bellwort

Uvularia grandiflora

Uvulaire grandiflore

Family: Lily (Liliaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 30-50 cm (12-18")
Light requirements: Full to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: In 2014, the leaves of both large plants in the Woodland Walk part of the BYG were eaten in May.

Propagation: In 2013, finally collected enough seeds to try germination. Into damp vermiculite and in refrigerator; 3 seeds germinated in mid-May 2014.

Provenance:



Blue Vervain

Verbena hastata

Verveine hastée

Family: Vervain (Verbenaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Butterfly Meadow; Old Field
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: Blue to Violet
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 30-90 cm (1-3')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average to moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Roadsides, thickets. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Attracts bees and butterflies.

Notes: Tiny dark blue-purple flowers start blooming at the base of multiple tall narrow spikes at the top of each stem. Flowering continues up each spike to the top. As flowers die, spikes turn dark brown and remain on plant in winter. Susceptible to mildew.

Propagation: Produces copious amounts of tiny seeds, but very difficult to germinate. Soak seeds in water for 24 hours; place between paper towels in a plastic bag, and put into refrigerator for a month. Sow on the surface of soil as seeds need light to germinate.

Provenance:



Culver's Root

Veronicastrum virginicum

Véronique de Virgine

Family: Figwort (Scrophulariaceae)
Native to: North America
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 0.5-1.5 m (2-6')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Meadows, prairies. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Great source of nectar and pollen.

Notes: Small tubular flowers grow on spikes (usually three) at the top of the stem.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed.

Provenance:



Heart-leaved Aster

Symphyotrichum cordifolium

Aster à feuilles cordées

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW OM RO
Flower colour: Blue to violet
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer
Height: (60-75 cm (2-2.5')
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Open woods, wood edges. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Source of nectar for pollinators; seeds for birds.

Notes: Grows in a range of conditions. In our Backyard Garden, we have plants in the shady part of the rockery (semi-shade, well-drained), in the Woodland Walk (shade, average to moist soil), and in the Ontario meadow bed (full sun).

Propagation: Easy to grow from seeds, which need cold moist stratification.

Provenance:



Canada Wild Ginger

Asarum canadense

Asaret du Canada

Family: Ginger (Aristolochiaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Dark burgundy
Type:
Blooming time: Early spring
Height: 10-50 cm (4-18")
Light requirements: Shade to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Good low ground cover. Flowers appear early in the spring when leaves are still small. They are right at ground level and difficult to see. Spread slowly. Largest plants at the FWG are no more than 20 cm tall, but we have seen ginger in the wild that is almost 60 cm tall.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Barren Strawberry

Waldsteinia fragarioides

Waldsteinie faux-fraisier

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 15 cm (6")
Light requirements: Shade to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods and clearings. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Good ground cover in dry woodland conditons. Spreads by rhizomes, but not aggressively.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance: Old Field Garden



Common Sneezeweed

Helenium autumnale

Hélénie automnale

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer
Height: 0.5-1.3 m (2-5')
Light requirements: Full sun
Moisture requirements: Average to moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Along ditches, streams, damp meadows. Rare in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Good nectar source for butterflies. Plant sale customer reports his plants covered in bumblebees.

Notes: Grows quickly. Can be cut back in June to reduce overall height and promote branching.

Propagation: Very easy to grow from seed although slow starting. Or divide plants every few years.

Provenance:



Spreading Dogbane

Apocynum androsaemifolium

Apocyn à feuilles d'androsème

Family: Dogbane (Apocynaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; next to Bill Holland Trail just north of Amphibian Pond
Backyard garden bed: FR
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 30-100 cm (1-3')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Well-drained sites; forest edge, open hillsides, clearings, fields. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Exclusive food plant for the dogbane beetle Chrysochus auratus, a beautiful, irridescent non-pest species. Nectar used by sweat bees and some syrphid flies. Reportedly favoured by Atlantis and Aphrodite fritillaries and hairstreaks.

Notes: Spreads slowly by rhizomes in the wild. We tried planting it in a narrow bed along the front of our building, where it is doing well. "Spreading" refers to the appearance of the leaves. The name "dogbane" comes from the root's reputed value as a remedy for the bites of mad dogs. Plant sale customer reports "doing well," "spready" - able to divide and share.

Propagation: Easy from seed, but only after several months of cold moist stratification. Poor germination in 2015.

Provenance:



Monkey-flower

Mimulus ringens

Mimule bleu lavande

Family: Figwort (Scrophulariaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 30-60 cm (1-2')
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average to wet
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Damp areas, bogs, stream banks. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Blooms for quite a long time. Prefers moist conditions, so good next to pond

Propagation: From seed after cold moist stratification.

Provenance:



Solomon's Seal

Polygonatum biflorum

Sceau-de-Salomon

Family: Lily (Liliaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Greenish white
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 30-90 cm (1-3')
Light requirements: Shade to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average to moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Rare in the Ottawa region although common elsewhere in Ontario.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Easy to grow in a woodland garden. Spreads slowly by rhizomes. Flowers are short lived, but foliage is very attractive. Produces blue-black berries, but we haven't seen these.

Propagation: Not tried from seed. Plants can be divided every couple of years.

Provenance:



Lance-leaved Figwort

Scrophularia lanceolata

Scrophulaire lancéolée

Family: Figwort (Scrophulariaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Edge of Ash Woodlot, Butterfly Meadow
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: Burgundy and yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Late spring to mid-summer
Height: 0.6-1.3 m (2-4 feet)
Light requirements: Full sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Open woods, disturbed areas and borders

Wildlife use: Lise H reports bees/wasps "crazy insane" for figwort - even in the rain.

Notes:

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed. Good germination rate after several months of cold, moist stratification.

Provenance: Found growing next to FWG woods.



Blue Flag

Iris versicolor

Clajeux

Family: Iris (Iridaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: Blue
Type:
Blooming time: Late spring to early summer
Height: 50-70 cm (18-30")
Light requirements: Full sun
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Along streams, edges of ponds. Common in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use: Attracts hummingbirds.

Notes: Showy blue flowers, 2 or 3 to a stem. Tolerates constant moist or wet soil.

Propagation: Division in fall or grow from seed. Collect seed when pods start to open (Sept. 2011). Seeds require cold moist treatment. In 2008, germination did not occur even after 4 months in refrigerator. Scarification did not seem to help. I placed container of moist seeds on top of a grow lamp - heat - for a day followed by bright light. Germination finally occurred - 2-4 seeds a day for several weeks. In 2011, germination rate was very high and seedlings grew to be almost as big as mature plants but did not bloom.

Provenance: Original seed collected on Barryvale Road near Calabogie.



Wild Marjoram

Origanum vulgare

Marjolaine commune

Family: Mint (Lamiaceae)
Native to: Europe
Location at the FWG: South side of Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 30-50 cm (1-1.5 feet)
Light requirements: Full sun
Moisture requirements: Average to dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Open, often dry, fields. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Good nectar plant for bees.

Notes: Easy to maintain. Tends to form a clump and doesn't spread rapidly. Fragrant leaves.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Common St. John's-wort

Hypericum perforatum

Millepertuis

Family: St. John's-wort (Hypericaceae)
Native to: Europe
Location at the FWG: Fields
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 30-60 cm (1-2 feet)
Light requirements: Full sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Open fields, woodland edge. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Good nectar and pollen source for bees.

Notes:

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Golden Alexanders

Zizia aurea

Zizia doré

Family: Carrot (Apeaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Early summer
Height: 0.5-1.3 m (2-5')
Light requirements: Full sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Moist prairies, wet thickets, open wooded hillsides, ditches, and along streams. Rare in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Like other members of the carrot family, this plant is host to Black Swallowtail larvae. The flat cluster of flowers (umbel) also attracts adult butterflies.

Notes: Flowering heads tend to fall over after blooming and may need staking.

Propagation: Easy from seed, which can be collected by mid-summer.

Provenance:



Jewelweed or Touch-me-not

Impatiens capensis

Chou sauvage

Family: Touch-me-not (Balsaminaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ravine; Ash Woodlot; damp areas
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: Orange
Type:
Blooming time: Late Summer
Height: 60-150 cm (24-60")
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Wet
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Grows naturally in shaded wetlands, along streams, by springs, and in moist woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Attracts hummingbirds. Dense stand just below our Amphibian Pond is a favourite area for Ruby-throated Hummingbirds in late August.

Notes: Annual. Often occurs in dense stands. needs moist soil as plants wilt easily if dry; they also collapse quickly when weather gets cold in fall. Tiny seed pods spring open when touched lightly. Self-seeds prolifically, but very easy to pull out extra plants. Juice or sap sooths irritation caused by stinging nettle.

Propagation: Annual, so grows from seeds. Propagation not attempted.

Provenance:



Cow Vetch

Vicia cracca

Vesce craque

Family: Pea (Fabaceae)
Native to: Europe
Location at the FWG: Open fields
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: Purple
Type:
Blooming time: Early summer
Height: 50 cm (24")
Light requirements: Full sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Roadsides, open fields. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Larval food source for Eastern Tailed Blue and Silvery Blue butterflies.

Notes: Vine-like; can grow to 120 cm long, but is usually found in fields where it wraps around and over grass. Leaves are compound and bristle-tipped. Pair of tendrils at end of each leafstalk. Climbing or scrambling growth.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Northern Water-plantain

Alisma triviale

Alisma commun

Family: Water-plantain (Alismataceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 15-30 cm (6-12")
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Shallow water. Common in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use: Cover and food for water creatures.

Notes: We have two species of water plantain next to the lower pond, one much smaller than A. triviale. Good low-growing plant for backyard-sized ponds.

Propagation: Tried once; unsuccessful. Seed needs to be kept wet.

Provenance: Creek near Barryvale, 2007



Squirrel Corn

Dicentra canadensis

Dicentre du Canada

Family: Fumitory (Fumariaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 10-30 cm
Light requirements: Shade to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average to moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Common in the Ottawa area; damp woods.

Wildlife use: Pollinated by bumblebees.

Notes: Flowers are short-lived, but low-growing foliage is very attractive in a shady garden.

Propagation:

Provenance: Old Field Garden 2007



Lance-leaved tickseed

Coreopsis lanceolata

Coréopsis lancéolée

Family: Asteraceae (Aster)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Mid-summer
Height: 50-80 cm (1.5-2 feet)
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Not found in the wild in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use: Excellent nectar plant; used by sweat bees, syrphid flies, bumblebees, and other insects.

Notes: Stems tend to curve and plants often fall over. Hard to prop up, but low fencing around plants helps. Plants are more likely to remain erect if planted singly than in groups. Each plant has many stems and produces many, many flowers.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed.

Provenance:



Purple Joe Pye Weed

Eutrochium purpureum

Eupatoire pourpre

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 1-1.5 m (3-5 feet)
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average to moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Moist areas, wet meadows and thickets, streambanks. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use: Excellent nectar plant for butterflies and bees.

Notes: Needs to be heavily mulched. Wilts temporarily during dry spells.

Propagation: Easy from seed. Successfully moved some to area of Amphibian Pond.

Provenance:



Common Yarrow

Achillea millefolium

Achillée millefeuille

Family: Asteraceae (Aster)
Native to: Naturalized
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden, Butterfly Meadow, fields
Backyard garden bed: OM
Flower colour: white
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 0.5-1 m (1.5-3 feet)
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average to dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Common in fields and roadsides throughout the Ottawa region

Wildlife use: Good nectar plant for butterflies. Reported to repell "bad" insects while attracting "good" ones, such as wasps that prey on other insects. Pennsylvania leatherwings, ambush bugs and crab spiders (both of whom lie in wait for insects seeking nectar), checkered beetles, hover flies have all been observed on yarrow. Some insects also use the flat flower heads to rest on.

Notes: Drought tolerant. In a garden setting, yarrow grows taller than in the wild. Can spread aggressively. Fine, "feathery" leaves.

Propagation: Very easy to grow from seed. Does not require stratification.

Provenance:



Upland White Goldenrod

Solidago ptarmicoides

Verge d’or faux-ptarmica

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: RO FR
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 50 cm (18 inches)
Light requirements: Full sun
Moisture requirements: Average to dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Sparse in the Ottawa area. Found in dry, open areas both in full sun and in partial shade where other plants are not crowding it out. CH has seen it in Marlborough Forest growing out of rocky soil near cedars; a very sunny, open dry meadow; Burnt Lands alvar; and various other locations.

Wildlife use: Syrphid flies and some bumblebees are attracted to this species.

Notes: Very attractive white flowers. Forms large clusters in garden setting.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed.

Provenance:



Downy Yellow Violet

Viola pubescens

Violette pubescente

Family: Violet (Violaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 10-20 cm (6-12 inches)
Light requirements: Shade to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: One of the easiest violets to identify.

Propagation:

Provenance:



Bunchberry

Cornus canadensis

Quatre-temps

Family: Dogwood (Cornaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: FE
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 10-20 cm (less than 1')
Light requirements: Shade to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Hard to establish. Very beautiful low-growing plant. Leaves mostly is sets of four; four-petaled flowers; cluster of red berries in late summer.

Propagation: Not tried

Provenance: Calabogie area



Toothwort

Dentaria diphylla

Snicroûte

Family: Mustard (Cruciferae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 15-30 cm (6-12")
Light requirements: Shade to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Uncommon in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Transplanted from Ash Woods to Backyard Garden in 2009.

Propagation:

Provenance: Bought 3 from Old Field Garden in 2007, but they did not survive. Current plants may also be from OFG, but were planted in the Ash Woods, where they multiplied. Moved some to BYG in 2009.



Broad-leaved Waterleaf

Hydrophyllum canadense

Hydrophylle du Canada

Family: Waterleaf (Hydrophyllaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 15-40 cm (1-2!)
Light requirements: Part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use:

Notes:

Propagation:

Provenance:



Crested Iris

Iris cristata

Iris crêté

Family: Iris (Iridaceae)
Native to: North America
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: RO
Flower colour: Blue
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 4-10 cm (under 6")
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Not found in the wild in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use: Nectar source for bees.

Notes: Short blooming time, but very pretty, very low-growing plant.

Propagation: Not tried

Provenance: Old Field Garden 2008



Moss Phlox

Phlox subulata

Phlox mousse

Family: Phlox (Polemoniaceae)
Native to: North America
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: RO
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Early spring
Height: 6-12 cm (3-6")
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Native to the Appalachians. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use: Phloxes attract butterflies, moths, and long-tongued flies.

Notes: Good evergreen rockery plant.

Propagation:

Provenance: Gillian Boyd



Common Bearberry

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Raisin d'ours

Family: Heath (Ericaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: RO
Flower colour: Pink to white
Type:
Blooming time:
Height: 5-10 cm (up to 6")
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average to dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral to acid

Natural habitat: Well-drained sites in open woodlands. Common in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use: Berries are a favourite food of bears (thus the name) and grouse, but also attract a number of other birds.

Notes: Considered a shrub, but very low growing. Drought and salt tolerant. Produces red berries.

Propagation:

Provenance:



Ivory Sedge

Carex eburnea

Carex ivoirin

Family: Sedge (Cyperaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: RO
Flower colour: ?
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 10-30 cm (6-12 inches)
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average to dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Uncommon in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use: May be larval host for Dun Skipper.

Notes: Forms very attractive grassy clumps. Spreads slowly.

Propagation: From seed.

Provenance:



Eastern Prickly Pear Cactus

Opuntia humifusa

Raquette de l’Est

Family: Cactus (Cactaceae)
Native to: North America
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: RO
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 6-30 cm (4-12")
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average to dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Dry, well-drained areas. Native to southern Ontario, but not found in the wild in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use: Nectar for insects. Fruit eaten by small mammals.

Notes: Less susceptible to cold than any other cactus, this species is still difficult to grow in the Ottawa area. Ours has bloomed several times and occasionally forms "pears."

Propagation: Not tried

Provenance:



Dwarf Lake Iris

Iris lacustris

Iris lacustre

Family: Iris (Iridaceae)
Native to: Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: RO
Flower colour: Blue
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 4-10 cm (under 6")
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Sandy, gravelly areas on lake shores. In Canada, found only along the west side of the Bruce Peninsula.

Wildlife use: Pollinated by bees. Ants collect the seeds.

Notes: Beautiful, low-growing iris. Originally thought to be a subspecies of Iris cristata.

Propagation: Mainly vegetative (from rhizomes). Seeds have very low germination rate.

Provenance: Old Field Garden 2008



Blazingstar

Liatris spicata

Liatris à épis

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: North America
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer
Height: 50-70 cm (1.5-2')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Moist prairies and sedge meadows. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use: Excellent nectar plant.

Notes: Available from most nurseries, this is a popular garden plant and a good addition to a wildlife garden.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed, but does not bloom the first year.

Provenance: Local commercial nursery.



Lupine

Lupinus

Lupin

Family: Legume (Fabaceae)
Native to: North America
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Butterfly Meadow
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: Blue, pink
Type:
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 0.3-1 m (1-3')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Meadows. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use: Pollinated by bees.

Notes: Like other members of the legume family, lupines fix nitrogen, enriching the soil.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Palm Sedge

Carex muskingumensis

Laîche palmée

Family: Sedge (Cyperaceae)
Native to: West North America
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Early summer
Height: 30-50 cm (1-1.5')
Light requirements: Full sun
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Not found in the wild in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use: Caterpillars of several moths, skippers, and butterflies feed on the foliage (report from Illinois; may not apply locally). Birds and small mammals eat the seeds.

Notes: Reported to "thrive in clay" (Prairie Nursery)

Propagation: Not tried

Provenance:



Ox-eye Daisy

Leucanthemum vulgare

Marguerite commune

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Europe
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; fields; Butterfly Meadow
Backyard garden bed: OM
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 30-60 cm (1-2')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows. Common in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use: Attracts ants and leafcutter bees like the one in the photo, which was taken by Jonathan Mack M.

Notes: Native to Europe, but now widespread and naturalized in North America. Thrives in a wide range of conditions.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Sweet Coneflower

Rudbeckia subtomentosa

Rudbeckie odorante

Family: Daisy (Compositae)
Native to: North America
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: SO
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer
Height: 1-1.5 m (3-5')
Light requirements: Full sun
Moisture requirements: Average to dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Prairies. Not found in the wild in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use: Attracts butterflies and many species of bees.

Notes: Flowers look like Black-eyed Susan.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance: Seeds from Gardens North (circa 2003)



Marsh Skullcap

Scutellaria galericulata

Scutellaire

Family: Mint (Labiatae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: Mauve
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer
Height: 30-50 cm (1-2.5')
Light requirements: Full sun
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Marshes, wet meadows. Common in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use:

Notes:

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed, which requires stratification.

Provenance: Seeds collected near Calabogie.



Queen Anne's lace

Daucus carota

Family: Carrot (Apiaceae)
Native to: Naturalized alien
Location at the FWG: Many areas of the FWG
Backyard garden bed: FR
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 1-1.5 m (3-5.5 feet)
Light requirements: Full sun
Moisture requirements: Average to dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Disturbed dry areas.

Wildlife use: Host plant for black swallowtail butterflies. Attracts a wide variety of insects, including ambush bugs and crab spiders that hide in the florets and others that perch on the flowers.

Notes: Spreads rapidly, but then disappears from an area. Biennial.

Propagation: Not tried

Provenance:



Water Avens

Geum rivale

Benoîte des ruisseaux

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: Yellow petals with purple sepals
Type:
Blooming time: Late spring
Height: 15-40 cm (6-16")
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use: Pollinated by bees (?)

Notes:

Propagation:

Provenance: Two plants donated by Carol Macleod in 2011.



Butterfly bush

Buddleia

Buddleia

Family: Figwort (Scrophulariaceae)
Native to: North America
Location at the FWG: Backyard garden
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: white
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer
Height:
Light requirements: Full sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Not found in the wild locally.

Wildlife use: Buddleia is a magnet for many species of butterflies. So far, we have seen Painted Ladies and Monarchs on it.

Notes: Buddleia is not hardy in our area. We have tried planting it in the Backyard Garden many times and it doesn't survive more than a couple of years. The current bush was donated. It is an offshoot of one that has been growing locally for at least 5 years.

Propagation: Not tried. Probably best from shoots or suckers.

Provenance: Donation from Jean Stalker (OHS) in 2011.



Tall Cinquefoil

Drymocallis arguta

Potentille âcre

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: OM
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 35-100 cm (2-3')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average to dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Dry prairies, open woods, roadsides. Rare in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use: Good source of pollen for native bees; mainly visited by small bees and flies.

Notes: Drought tolerant.

Propagation: Easy to grow from stratified seed.

Provenance: Ritchies - donation for plant sale



Pointed-leaved Tick-trefoil

Desmodium glutinosum

Desmodie glutineuse

Family: Bean (Fabaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG:
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: Pink
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 30-90 cm (1-3')
Light requirements: Shade, part-shade
Moisture requirements: Average to moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods and woodland edges, especially along roads and trails.

Wildlife use: Halictid bees, bumblebees, other long-tongued bees may visit flowers. Wild Turkeys and Bobwhite Quail eat the seeds. White-tailed Deer, Eastern Cottontails eat foliage. (Illinois Wildflowers website)

Notes: Pink flowers stand out clearly against dark, shady background. Leaves are easy to mistake for Poison Ivy, but flowers and large, purse-shaped, "sticky" seeds make it easy to identify.

Propagation: First tried in 2015. Only 3 seeds germinated; others were covered in a tiny branching fungus. In 2016, high germination rate.

Provenance:



Awl-fruited Sedge

Carex stipata

Carex stipité

Family: Sedge (Cyperaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG:
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour:
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 60cm-1m (2-3ft)
Light requirements: Full sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Wet
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Thrives in wet environments at low elevation like wetlands, meadows, open clearing, swamps, and near lake edges.

Wildlife use: Helps keep deer away from vegetable gardens. Foliage is eaten by several grasshoppers and larvae of several butterflies, e.g., Dion Skipper, Mulberry Wing, Long Dash, and Eyed Brown. Seeds are eaten by seed bugs. Seedheads are also food for Mallards, rails, woodcocks, Swamp Sparrows. (Ref: http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/grasses/plants/prickly_sedge.htm)

Notes: Common sedge found all across Canada. Grows quickly and is good for stabilizing soil and controlling erosion. Very adaptable; will tolerate dry conditions.

Propagation: Collected seeds in fall 2014, but no germination.

Provenance: Barryvale 2014



Yellow Sedge

Carex flava

Carex jaune

Family: Sedge (Cyperaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG:
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour:
Type:
Blooming time: Early summer
Height: 10-75 cm (0.5-2.5')
Light requirements: Full sun
Moisture requirements: Wet
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral, >7.2

Natural habitat: Meadows and fields, ridges or ledges, shores of rivers or lakes.

Wildlife use: Attracts insects and other small wildlife.

Notes: Good ground cover in areas that are too wet for grass. Low growing.

Propagation: Collected seeds in fall 2014, but no germination.

Provenance: Barryvale 2014.



Iron Weed

Vernonia noveboracensis

Vernonie de new-york

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern North America
Location at the FWG:
Backyard garden bed: ON
Flower colour: Purple
Type:
Blooming time: Late Summer-Early Fall
Height: 90-120 cm (3-5 ft)
Light requirements: Full sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Sunny moist beds, rain gardens, and beside ponds and streams.

Wildlife use: Attracts birds, especially hummingbirds, and butterflies.

Notes: If your growing area is limited cut the stems by half in early summer to control the height.

Propagation:

Provenance:



Arrow-leaved Aster

Symphyotrichum urophyllum

Aster urophylle

Family: Asteraceae
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Butterfly Meadow
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer
Height: 50-100 cm (2-3 ft)
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: High pH

Natural habitat: Fields and open areas, meadows, forest edges or dry open areas of woods.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Prolific blooms late in the season.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed. High rate of germination after 3 months cold, moist stratification.

Provenance:



Indian Tobacco

Lobelia inflata

Lobélie gonflée

Family: Campanulaceae
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG:
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Late Summer-Early Fall
Height: 30-60 cm (1-2 ft)
Light requirements: Sun, sunny-shade
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Fields, roadsides, open woods, meadows

Wildlife use: Birds have been known to be attracted to the nectar.

Notes:

Propagation: Propagation is usually accomplished by cuttings or seed.

Provenance:



Marsh vetchling

Lathyrus palustris

Gesse des marais

Family: Pea (Fabaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG:
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: Purple
Type:
Blooming time: Late Summer
Height: 25-80 cm (1-3 ft)
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Wet
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Habitats include wet prairies, interdunal swales, borders of marshes, fens, sedge meadows, low areas along streams, soggy thickets, and swamps. This wildflower occurs in both sandy and non-sandy habitats.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Drought sensitive.

Propagation: Grows from seeds.

Provenance:



Moth Mullein

Verbascum blattaria

Molène blattaire

Family: Figwort (Scrophulariaceae)
Native to: Eurasia
Location at the FWG:
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: White or yellow with purplish base
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer, early fall
Height: 60-120 cm (2-5 ft)
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Occurs in fields, pastures, waste places, rights-of-way, and gravel bars along streams and rivers. It thrives best in disturbed areas.

Wildlife use: Finches have been seen consuming the seeds.The pollen of the flowers is collected by bumblebees and Halictid bees

Notes: Fruit is a round, hairy, fleshy, greenish capsule containing many small dark brown seeds with wavy ridges.

Propagation:

Provenance:



Slender Mountain-mint

Pycnanthemum tenuifolium

Pycnanthème à feuilles étroites

Family: Mint (Lamiaceae)
Native to: Native to Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG:
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: White
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 60-90 cm (2-3')
Light requirements: Full sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average to dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Dry, open, rocky woods, dry prairies and fields, along roadsides, along streams and in open wet thickets.

Wildlife use: Great for a pollinator garden as it attracts a number of bees, wasps, flies, butterflies, beetles, and plant bugs. Seeds are too small for birds, and mammals dislike the minty aroma.

Notes: Showy masses of tiny flowers attract bees. Tolerates drought; prevents erosion. Will grow on clay, dry, shallow-rocky soils. Low maintenance. Henry says the plants we grew from seed in 2015, although from seeds of tenuifolium, were actually hybrids with the adjacent viginianum plant.

Propagation: Easy to grow from seed, although seed is difficult to collect. Wait until seed heads are dry or drying and shake them upside down over a dish or paper towel.

Provenance: Henry



Virginia Waterleaf

Hydrophyllum virginianum

Hydrophylle de Virginie

Family: Hydrophyllaceae
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Old Woodlot
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: Mauve to white
Type:
Blooming time: Late spring
Height: 30-60 cm (1-2')
Light requirements: Shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Deciduous woodlands, savannas, areas along woodland paths, wooded slopes along rivers, bluffs, edges of clearings in wooded areas, and powerline clearances in wooded areas

Wildlife use: The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract bumblebees, digger bees (Synhalonia spp.), cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.), mason bees (Osmia spp.), Halictid bees (Lasioglossum spp., Augochlorella spp., etc.), Andrenid bees (Andrena spp.), and bee flies (Bombyliidae). An Andrenid bee, Andrena geranii, is a specialist pollinator of Hydrophyllum spp. Syrphid flies sometimes feed on the pollen of the flowers, but they are less effective at cross-pollination. The foliage is browsed by White-Tailed Deer occasionally. (http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/woodland/plants/va_waterleaf.htm)

Notes: Great ground cover in shady areas. Similar Canada Waterleaf planted in Old Woodlot.

Propagation: Spreads quickly. Not tried from seed.

Provenance: Iola Price



Riddell's Goldenrod

Solidago riddellii

Verge d'or de Riddell

Family: Aster (Asteraceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Old Woodlot
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: Yellow
Type:
Blooming time: Late summer
Height: 60-100 cm (24-40")
Light requirements: Full sun
Moisture requirements: Average to moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Wet meadows; fens. Same conditions as for Bottle Gentian.

Wildlife use: Pollinated by a variety of flies, bees, wasps, and moths.

Notes: Special Concern. Riddell’s Goldenrod survives as an underground woody stem during winter. Seeds are dispersed by the wind, but plants may also reproduce by sending up shoots from the underground stem. http://www.ontario.ca/environment-and-energy/riddells-goldenrod

Propagation:

Provenance: Donated by Renée De Vry



Canada Honewort

Cryptotaenia canadensis

Cryptoténie du Canada

Family: Parsley (Apiaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Old Woodlot
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: white
Type:
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 0.3-1 m (1-3')
Light requirements: Shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Deciduous woods, edges.

Wildlife use: According to Illinois Wildflowers: "The nectar of the flowers attracts Halictid bees (Halictus spp., Lasioglossum spp., Sphecodes spp.), masked bees (Hylaeus spp.), Andrenid bees (Andrena spp.), cuckoo wasps (Hedychrum spp.), wild carrot wasps (Gasteruption spp.), Ichneumonid wasps, Syrphid flies, dance flies (Empis spp.), bee flies (Bombyliidae), thick-headed flies (Conopidae), Tachinid flies, Chloropid flies, long-horned beetles (Cerambycidae), leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae), tumbling flower beetles (Mordellidae), and other insects. Insects that feed destructively on Honewort include the leaf-mining larvae of Euleia heraclei (Hogweed Picture-Winged Fly), Cavariella aegopodii (Willow-Carrot Aphid), Hyadaphis foeniculi (Fennel Aphid), leaf-mining larvae of the moth Epermenia pimpinella, and caterpillars of the butterfly Papilio polyxenes asterius (Black Swallowtail)."

Notes: Tiny white flowers rise above attractive dark green foliage.

Propagation: Easy from seed. Very high, very quick germination in 2016

Provenance: Calabogie area.



This page was revised on 11 February 2013
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