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Shrubs


Alternate-leaved Dogwood

Cornus alternifolia

Cornouiller à feuilles alternes

Family: Dogwood (Cornaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type: shrub
Blooming time: Late spring
Height: Up to 4 m (12')
Light requirements: Shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Understory of woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Berries are loved by many bird species. Eastern Kingbird family seen feeding on them in August 2009. Larval food source for Summer Azure butterflies.

Notes: Shrub. Very attractive small tree or tall shrub. Branches horizontal in tiers like a pagoda. Dark blue berries produced in summer.

Propagation: Not tried

Provenance: Claudia's cottage.



Red Osier Dogwood

Cornus stolonifera

Harts rouge

Family: Dogwood (Cornaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; field north of Ash Woodlot; hedgerow; edge of pond
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type: shrub
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 2 m (6-7')
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Meadows, swamps. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Ninety species of birds have been recorded using the berries as a food source. Some of these are: Eastern Kingbird, Red-eyed Vireo, Warbling Vireo, Eastern Bluebird, Hermit Thrush, Wood Thrush, American Robin, Gray Catbird, Cedar Waxwing, Brown Thrasher, Northern Cardinal, Evening Grosbeak, Pine Grosbeak. Larval food source for Summer Azure (Celastrina neglecta). Flowers provide nectar for butterflies.

Notes: Shrub. Has clusters of small white flowers; white berries. Red stems look wonderful in winter garden. Can be heavily pruned for good stem colour.

Propagation: Easy to divide and transplant.

Provenance:



Downy Serviceberry

Amelanchier arborea

Amélanchier arborescent

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Hedgerow; thicket in front of Interpretive Centre
Backyard garden bed: OM
Flower colour: White
Type: shrub
Blooming time: Early spring
Height: 4 m (13’) at maturity
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods and edges of woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Birds love the berries and often eat them before they are fully ripe. In July 2008, catbirds, orioles, cardinals, and robins were eating or collecting fruit from the serviceberry tree in our Backyard Garden; and four chipmunks were stuffing themselves with all the fruit they could reach.

Notes: Attractive white flowers in early spring (blooms before the cherries); attractive foliage with good fall colour. Edible dark purple berries in July; fruit sweet and juicy.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Ninebark

Physocarpus opulifolius

Physocarpe à feuilles d'Obier

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Hedgerow
Backyard garden bed: FR
Flower colour: White
Type: shrub
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 2-3 m (6-10') at maturity
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods, wood edges. Uncommon in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Upright, spreading, much-branched shrub. White flowers in late June or July, reddish-brown inflated seed pods can persist over winter. Related to spirea. Peeling bark, showing several under-layers. Effective in hedges or for erosion control on banks. Easy to grow; adaptable to harsh conditions. High salt tolerance. Benefits from renewal pruning.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Prickly Wild Rose

Rosa acicularis

Eglantier

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: OM
Flower colour: Pink
Type: shrub
Blooming time: Summer
Height: Up to 1.2 m (4')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Nectar and pollen for bees and other pollinators (e.g., syrphid flies). Produces red rosehips in late summer, which are eaten by robins and red and grey squirrels. Seeds are eaten by some songbirds. Rose bushes are also used by a huge variety of insects, including gall-making wasps, moths, sawflies, and beetles.

Notes: Shrub native to Ontario; widespread. Moderately shade tolerant. Flowers in early summer.

Propagation: Not tried. Small plants arising from rhizomes are easy to transplant.

Provenance:



Purple-flowering Raspberry

Rubus odoratus

Framboisier sauvage

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Hedgerow; south slope of ravine near Amphibian Pond
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: Pink
Type: shrub
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 1-2 m (3-6')
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average to moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Clearings, thickets, and ravines, along roads, lakeshores, riverbanks, and borders of woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Raspberry-type berries are unpalatable to people, but very attractive to birds.

Notes: Erect or arching shrub. Forms thickets, spreading by underground shoots. Showy, with large, rose-like pink flowers. Does well in part shade as well as full sun.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Common Elderberry

Sambucus canadensis

Sureau blanc

Family: Honeysuckle (Caprifoliaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; thickets in front of Interpretive Centre; Hedgerow
Backyard garden bed: BB
Flower colour: White
Type: shrub
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 3 m (10') at maturity
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average to moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Low ground, thickets, edges of woods, roadsides, fencerows. Uncommon in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Fruit is eaten by birds - Eastern Kingbird, Eastern Phoebe, Swainson's Thrush, American Robin, Gray Catbird. Good nest tree.

Notes: Small tree or large shrub. Branches wide-spreading. Flat creamy white heads of flowers in the summer, followed by purple-black fruit. Our shrub is likely a horticultural variety of

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Red-berried Elder

Sambucus pubens

Sureau rouge

Family: Honeysuckle (Caprifoliaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot; edges of Old Field; Hedgerow
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type: shrub
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 3 m (9') at maturity
Light requirements: Partial sun
Moisture requirements: Average to wet
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Thickets, ravines, open woods, and clearings. roadsides and edges of woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Red berries provide food for a number of birds and mammals, although they are not edible by humans: Eastern Kingbird, Eastern Phoebe, Swainson's Thrush, American Robin, Gray Catbird.

Notes: Small tree or shrub; branches arch out into umbrella form. Tolerant of pollution.

Propagation:

Provenance:



Meadowsweet

Spiraea latifolia

Spirée à larges feuilles

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: PW
Flower colour: White
Type: shrub
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 0.5-1.8 m (2-6')
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Wet fields, meadows. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Larval food source for Summer Azure (Celastrina neglecta).

Notes: White or pale pink flowers.

Propagation: We have collected seeds in January, with very good germination immediately.

Provenance:



Snowberry

Symphoricarpos albus

Symphorine blanche

Family: Honeysuckle (Caprifoliaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Field west of Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: White
Type: shrub
Blooming time: Early summer
Height: 30-120 cm (1-4')
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Wood edges. Uncommon in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Flowers unobtrusive, but white berries are over 1 cm in diameter and stay on the plant late into the fall. Spreads by rhizomes.

Propagation: Can be propagated by cuttings or by seed.

Provenance:



Wild Raisin

Viburnum cassinoides

Viorne cassinoide

Family: Honeysuckle (Caprifoliaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Thickets around Old Field; north slope of Amphibian Pond
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: White
Type: shrub
Blooming time: Spring
Height: Up to 4–5 m (12-15')
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Moist to dry
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Moist of acid soils, damp sandy banks, thickets, low woods, swamps. Sparse in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Blue-black berries attract birds. Larval food source for Summer Azure (Celastrina neglecta).

Notes: Dense multi-stemmed shrub with arching branches. Flat clusters of creamy white flowers. Useful for its extreme durability. Very easy to grow; adaptable to dry to fairly wet soils; easily transplanted.

Propagation:

Provenance:



Nannyberry

Viburnum lentago

Viorne flexible

Family: Honeysuckle (Caprifoliaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; thickets in front of Interpretive Centre; hedgerow; edges of Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour: White
Type: shrub
Blooming time: Spring
Height: Up to 4 m (12')
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods, wood edges. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Provides an emergency food supply in winter when other fruit has vanished; very good for cover and nesting sites. Fruit eaten by Brown Thrasher, Cedar Waxwing, Evening Grosbeak. Larval food source for Spring Azure (Celastrina ladon).

Notes: Multi-stemmed, upright branches. Use in shrub borders, tall hedge, or screen. Good background for native plantings. Suckering habit is conducive to naturalizing. Clusters of creamy-white flowers, followed by blue-black edible fruit. Berries stain. Tolerant of both moist and dry soils; very adaptable to many sites; easily transplanted and established.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Beaked Hazel

Corylus cornuta

Noisetier

Family: Birch (Betulaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: RO
Flower colour: ?
Type: shrub
Blooming time: ?
Height:
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Understory of mixed woods. Common in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use: Squirrels and other mammals eat the nuts.

Notes: Planted in the upper part of the rockery. May not be getting enough light.

Propagation:

Provenance: Ferguson Forest



American Bladdernut

Staphylea trifolia

Staphylier à trois folioles

Family: Staphyleaceae
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG:
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: White
Type: Shrub
Blooming time: Spring
Height: 3-5 m (9-16 ft)
Light requirements: shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Forests, fields and open areas; rocky woods, river banks.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Can be drought sensitive, watering is needed during dry periods. There are clusters of drooping, tubular white flowers appear in early spring, followed by unusual bladder-like seed pods, which are persistent long into the winter months.

Propagation: Softwood and hardwood cuttings root easily and can also be grown from seed

Provenance:



Common Winterberry

Ilex verticillata

Houx verticillé

Family: Holly (Aquifoliaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG:
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour: Greenish-white (insignificant)
Type: Shrub
Blooming time: Summer
Height: 1-5 m (3-12')
Light requirements: Full sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average to wet
Soil: Average
pH: Acidic

Natural habitat: Wetlands, damp thickets, low woods, around ponds and streams.

Wildlife use: The berries attract many species of birds, although they are not edible by humans.

Notes: Both male and female plants are required for berries. The prolific bright red berries make this a wonderful addition to the fall garden.

Propagation: Seeds collected in fall 2014 and March 2015.

Provenance: Berries collected near Calabogie.



This page was revised on 11 February 2013
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