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Ferns


Bulblet Fern

Cystopteris bulbifera

Cystoptère bulbifère

Family: Woodfern (Dryopteridaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW FE
Flower colour:
Type: fern
Blooming time:
Height: 30-60 cm (1-2')
Light requirements: Full to part shade.
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods, shaded ravines. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Named for the dark green "bulblets" on underside of the fronds. Bulblets fall from parent plant and grow into new ferns.

Propagation: Grown from bulblets, but need high moisture and attention.

Provenance:



Northern Maidenhair Fern

Adiantum pedatum

Adiante du Canada

Family: Maidenhair Fern (Pteridaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: FE
Flower colour:
Type: fern
Blooming time:
Height: 30-60 cm (1-2’)
Light requirements: Full to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Uncommon in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Grows in colonies arising from horizontal rhizomes (Cody p. 101). Needs special conditions and may not survive at the FWG.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance: Sandy (Calabogie area); Lis (Lanark)



Ostrich Fern

Matteuccia struthiopteris

Matteuccie fougère-à-l'autruche

Family: Woodfern (Dryopteridaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour:
Type: fern
Blooming time:
Height: 0.5-1.5 m (2-5')
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average to moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Slopes, swamps, woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Nice lush background for natural plantings. Once established it spreads by rhizomes.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Royal Fern

Osmunda regalis

Osmonde royale

Family: Flowering-fern (Osmundaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW FE
Flower colour:
Type: fern
Blooming time:
Height: 1-1.5 m (2-5')
Light requirements: Full to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Cedar bogs, wet meadows, swamps, low-lying woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Nice texture. Taller and more branched than other local ferns. Difficult to grow in a backyard garden because needs moist conditions.

Propagation: Not tried.

Provenance:



Common Lady Fern

Athyrium filix-femina

Athyrie fougère-femelle

Family: Dryopteridaceae
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW, FE
Flower colour:
Type: fern
Blooming time:
Height: 30-60 cm (1-2')
Light requirements: Shade to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: "In various habitats ranging from meadows to open thickets, moist woods and even swamps" (Cody 1956). Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Delicate, fine-textured fronds. Has not spread at the FWG.

Propagation: Can be propogated from spores following American Fern Society's instructions. We have grown small plants, and have been able to transplant them into "natural" conditions.

Provenance:



Sensitive Fern

Onoclea sensibilis

Onoclée sensible

Family: Dryopteridaceae
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Old Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour:
Type: fern
Blooming time:
Height: 30-60 cm (1-2')
Light requirements: Shade to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods edges, ditches. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Although called "sensitive," this fern is easy to grow under a variety of conditions. The name refers to its tendency to wilt and turn brown at the first frost.

Propagation: Spores are on separate "fertile fronds." Propagation not tried.

Provenance:



Marginal Wood Fern

Dryopteris marginalis

Dryoptère à sores marginaux

Family: Woodfern (Dryopteridaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; Ash Woodlot
Backyard garden bed: WW
Flower colour:
Type: fern
Blooming time:
Height: 10-50 cm (6-18 inches)
Light requirements: Shade
Moisture requirements: Average to moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes:

Propagation: Fairly easy to propagate from spores although the process is lengthy.

Provenance:



Spinulose Wood Fern

Dryopteris carthusiana

Dryoptéride spinuleuse

Family: Woodfern (Dryopteridaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: WW FE
Flower colour:
Type: fern
Blooming time:
Height: 10-50 cm (6-18 inches)
Light requirements: Shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Woods. Common in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use:

Notes:

Propagation:

Provenance:



Eastern Hay-scented Fern

Dennstaedtia punctilobula

Dennstaedtie à lobules ponctués

Family: Bracken Fern (Dennstaedtiaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: FE
Flower colour:
Type: fern
Blooming time:
Height: 50-100 cm
Light requirements: Shade
Moisture requirements: Average to moist
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use:

Notes:

Propagation:

Provenance: Lis Allison



Narrow-leaved Glade Fern

Homalosorus pycnocarpos

Athyrie à sores denses

Family: Glade Fern (Diplaziopsidaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: FE
Flower colour:
Type: fern
Blooming time:
Height:
Light requirements: Shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use:

Notes:

Propagation:

Provenance:



Christmas Fern

Polystichum acrostichoides

Polystic faux-acrostic

Family: Wood Fern (Dryopteridaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: FE
Flower colour:
Type: fern
Blooming time:
Height:
Light requirements: Shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use:

Notes: Good garden fern as it accommodates a wide range of conditions. Glossy, deep green foliage. Like full to part shade and humusy, well-drained soil. Does not tolerate clay soils or standing water.

Propagation: Sow spores or divide rhizomes in spring.

Provenance: Lis Allison



New York Fern

Thelypteris noveboracensis

Thélyptère de New York

Family: Marsh Fern (Thelypteridaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: FE
Flower colour:
Type: fern
Blooming time:
Height: 30-60 cm (1-2')
Light requirements:
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Moist woods in filtered light. Grows in large colonies.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Fronds are widest in the middle, tapering at the base.

Propagation:

Provenance:



Silvery Glade Fern (Silvery Spleenwort)

Deparia acrostichoides

Athyrie fausse-thélyptère

Family: Dryopteridaceae
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: FE
Flower colour:
Type: fern
Blooming time:
Height: 1 m (3')
Light requirements: Shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Rich moist woods.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Silvery glade fern sori are oblong and arranged like a sergeant's stripes.

Propagation:

Provenance:



Marsh Fern

Thelypteris palustris

Thélyptère des marais

Family: Marsh Fern (Thelypteridaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG:
Backyard garden bed:
Flower colour:
Type: fern
Blooming time:
Height: 50-60 cm (18-24")
Light requirements:
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Edges of marshes and wet meadows, ditches, or woods; usually in rich, wet soil but not in standing water.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Underside of fronds, on rows of dots near the midvein. Fertile fronds have leaf edges that are slightly rolled over the spore-bearing sori. (http://www.ct-botanical-society.org/ferns/thelypterispalu.html)

Propagation:

Provenance:



Interrupted Fern

Osmunda claytoniana

Osmonde de Clayton

Family: Royal Fern (Osmundaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: FE
Flower colour:
Type: fern
Blooming time:
Height: 60-120 cm (2-4')
Light requirements: Shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Rich, mesic woods and open woods; shaded roadsides.

Wildlife use:

Notes: The green sterile leaflets are "interrupted" by a few fertile leaflets.

Propagation:

Provenance:



Cinnamon Fern

Osmundastrum cinnamomeum

Osmonde cannelle

Family: Royal Fern (Osmundaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: FE
Flower colour:
Type: fern
Blooming time:
Height: 1-2 m (3-5')
Light requirements: Shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Medium to wet soils of forests, swamps, and shorelines. Common in the Ottawa area.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Easy to identify when cinnamon-coloured fertile fronds are visible.

Propagation:

Provenance: Lis Allison



Common Oak Fern

Gymnocarpium dryopteris

Gymnocarpe fougère-du-chêne

Family: Bladder Fern (Cystopteridaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden
Backyard garden bed: FE
Flower colour:
Type: fern
Blooming time:
Height: 10-20 cm (4-8")
Light requirements:
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Average
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Shaded forest.

Wildlife use:

Notes: Single stalk. Three-part frond. Forms "groves."

Propagation:

Provenance: Lis Allison



This page was revised on 11 February 2013
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